terça-feira, 27 de setembro de 2016

Digitaljournal.com: Eurostars R&D Funding for EU Businesses Nears Deadline

BHS Global, a leading international supplier of forklift battery handling, material handling, and warehouse equipment, encourages eligible businesses within the European Union to take advantage of Eurostars grants to foster innovation.
Since 2008, when Eurostars began, 14 percent of the funded R&D projects were within the technological areas of industrial manufacturing, materials, and transport. Eighteen percent of the funded projects were in the market field of industrial products/manufacturing. Many of BHS Global's clients conduct R&D in these areas, said Katy Cortinovis, Marketing Manager at BHS Global."Eurostars is a really powerful funding opportunity for the industrial companies that drive innovation in the EU," Cortinovis said. "BHS Global isn't affiliated with Eurostars, but we want all of our clients to know that if they have an R&D project in mind, the funding is out there. And the deadline's coming right up."

More info on digitaljournal.com
Apply for Eurostars funding

sábado, 24 de setembro de 2016

The 12 habits of highly healthy people

Nutrition-wise blog

We have a new and exciting opportunity for you. It is a chance to get healthier, at your own pace, when it fits into your schedule, and at a level of participation that fits your lifestyle. It's modeled on a program for Mayo Clinic employees called "12 Habits of Highly Healthy People." The 12 habits are:
  1. Physical activity
  2. Forgiveness
  3. Portion size
  4. Preventive healthcare screening
  5. Adequate sleep
  6. Try something new
  7. Strength and flexibility
  8. Laugh
  9. Family and friends
  10. Address addictive behaviors
  11. Quiet your mind
  12. Gratitude
Each month, we'll highlight one of the habits and offer tips, called "opportunities to explore," to help you get started. Since this is a nutrition blog, we'll bring in that aspect, as appropriate, for each habit. We'll draw on the expertise of our fellow Mayo Clinic experts as needed too.

Habit 1: Physical activity

Exercise and physical activity are not only good for you, they're also a fun way to spend time — a chance to unwind, to be outdoors, to get social or to simply do something that makes you happy. Find a physical activity you enjoy and do it every day.
Better yet, find two or more types of activity to do to prevent boredom and overuse injuries. Pace yourself according to your age and fitness level. Start with a warm up and end with cool down. Increase time and intensity gradually. Consider exercising with a committed friend or involve your family.
A good general goal is to get at least 30 minutes of physical activity daily. If you want to lose weight or increase your fitness level, you may need more exercise or at a higher intensity. Bottom line, all movement counts, not just exercise.
Opportunities to explore:
  • Be active throughout your day. Take the stairs rather than the elevator, change a meeting into a "walking meeting," or consider a portable stepping or pedaling device that fits at your workstation. Include a 10-15 minute walk in your lunch hour.
  • Take a break from sitting. Try standing, stretching or walking for minimum of 5-10 minutes every hour while at work or sitting at home.
  • Activate your passion for food. Take up gardening, start walking to and from the grocery store, or explore a local farmers market. These are fun ways be more active and explore new foods.
  • Move more, snack less. Instead of snacking when you're bored, go for a walk, dance or try an exercise video.
  • Pick up an activity monitor. A pedometer is a simple tool to track your daily steps. There are also other types of activity monitors, such as Gruve and Fitbit, among others. Any of them can be a great tool to check your baseline activity level and encourage you to move more.
  • Make leisure time active time. Instead of watching television, go bowling or play an active video game.
  • Check out what's happening in your community. Are there community fitness classes at local parks, schools or gyms?
Here's to better health,

quinta-feira, 22 de setembro de 2016

Smoking has a very broad, long-lasting impact on the human genome

Smoking leaves its "footprint" on the human genome in the form of DNA methylation, a process by which cells control gene activity, according to new research in Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics, an American Heart Association journal.
The new findings suggest that DNA methylation could be an important sign that reveals an individual's smoking history, and could provide researchers with potential targets for new therapies.
"These results are important because methylation, as one of the mechanisms of the regulation of gene expression, affects what genes are turned on, which has implications for the development of smoking-related diseases," said Stephanie J. London, M.D., Dr.P.H., last author and deputy chief of the Epidemiology Branch at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. "Equally important is our finding that even after someone stops smoking, we still see the effects of smoking on their DNA."
Smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death worldwide, despite a decline in smoking in many countries as a result of smoking cessation campaigns and legislative action. Even decades after stopping, former smokers are at long-term risk of developing diseases including some cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and stroke. While the molecular mechanisms responsible for these long-term effects remain poorly understood, previous studies linking DNA methylation sites to genes involved with coronary heart disease and pulmonary disease suggest it may play an important role.
Researchers conducted a meta-analysis of DNA methylation sites across the human genome using blood samples taken from nearly 16,000 participants from 16 groups of the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genetic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium, including a group of the Framingham Heart Study that has been followed by researchers since 1971.
The researchers compared DNA methylation sites in current and former smokers to those who never smoked.
They found:
  • Smoking-associated DNA methylation sites were associated with more than 7,000 genes, or one-third of known human genes.
  • For people who stopped smoking, the majority of DNA methylation sites returned to levels seen in never smokers within five years of quitting smoking.
  • However, some DNA methylation sites persisted even after 30 years of quitting.
  • The most statistically significant methylation sites were linked to genes enriched for association with numerous diseases caused by cigarette smoking, such as cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers.
The researchers suggest that some of these long-lasting methylation sites may be marking genes potentially important for former smokers who are still at increased risk of developing certain diseases. The discovery of smoking-related DNA methylation sites raises the possibility of developing biomarkers to evaluate a patient's smoking history, as well as potentially developing new treatments targeted toward these methylation sites.
The main analysis was not designed to examine effects over long periods of time. The researchers note, that this is the largest examination of the effects of smoking on DNA methylation.
"Our study has found compelling evidence that smoking has a long-lasting impact on our molecular machinery, an impact that can last more than 30 years," said Roby Joehanes Ph.D. of Hebrew SeniorLife, first author and an instructor at Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts. "The encouraging news is that once you stop smoking, the majority of DNA methylation signals return to never smoker levels after five years, which means your body is trying to heal itself of the harmful impacts of tobacco smoking."
Story Source:
The above post is reprinted from materials provided by American Heart Association. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

This Week in Popular: Top 25 Photos on 500px This Week - 500px ISO

What a week! Last Friday, we got the word that 500px ISO was recently named #1 in Feedspot’s Top 100 Photography Blogs Every Photographer Must Read. We couldn’t be more honored to receive this accolade in the company of other wonderful blogs such as PetaPixel (2nd Place), Digital Photography School (4th place), fstoppers (5th place), and Chase Jarvis’ blog (10th place). A million thanks and high fives go out to all our talented blog contributors, and our hundreds of thousands of loyal readers and devoted social followers, for making this happen!
To continue this week on a positive note, we rounded up the top 25 images that reached the front page of Popular over the last week. From the most awe-inspiring landscapes to eye-catching portraits—these are the photos that were liked, favorited, and commented on by you and your fellow photographers in the 500px community. Read on to get inspired! Which one of the bunch is your favorite? Let us know in the comments once you’re done scrolling through the collection below.

25. Moonlit Dreamscape in Glacier National Park by Zach Allia

24. Olga by Tatiana Mertsalova

23. Way of Light by Mikko Lagerstedt

22. Rays on green tea farmland by Tiger Seo

21. Foxes by Alexandra Bochkareva

20. The Glowing Window by Daniel

19. Sunrise in Rhodes by panagiotis laoudikos

18. Vestrahorn by Rune Askeland

17. Friday Night’s Forest Dance Party by Lars van de Goor

16. Kirkjufell(foss) by Tomas Tichy

15. Nastya by Sean Archer

14. Tasman Blues by Dylan Toh & Marianne Lim

13. Millie The Golden by Dylan Furst

12. Pretty Sheeps on Ryten by Andrej Bazanov

11. Greenlandic Gems by Daniel Kordan

10. Switching the Shore by Johannes Hulsch

9. Valleys by Vincent Favre

8. Sweetness Of Light by Timothy Poulton

7. Olya by Georgy Chernyadyev

6. Aulangonjärvi From Above II by Lauri Lohi

5. Untitled by by Florian Pascual

4. The Empire by Ole Henrik Skjelstad

3. Just say Om! by John Wilhelm

2. Little Ones by Elena Shumilova

1. The Giants of the North by Max Rive

If “Popular” isn’t your thing, then give our Editors’ Choice page a look. Every month, two incredibly talented 500px community members go through our photos to dig up and curate the best photos that you might’ve missed.

quarta-feira, 21 de setembro de 2016

Keep muscles moving to help with diabetes


"Time" magazine's Sept. 12/19 issue includes an interesting article titled "The New Science of Exercise".
The article cites a compelling study published in the March 8, 2011, issue of "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America."
Dr. Mark Tarnopolsky, a genetic metabolic neurologist at McMaster University in Ontario, and a team of scientists studied mice with a terrible genetic disease that caused them to age prematurely.
Over the course of five months, half of the mice were sedentary. The other half were coaxed to run three times a week on a miniature treadmill. By the end of the study, the sedentary mice were barely hanging on. The fur that had yet to fall out had grown coarse and gray, muscles shriveled, hearts weakened, and skin thinned — even the mice's hearing got worse.
But the group of mice that exercised, genetically compromised though they were, was nearly indistinguishable from healthy mice. Their coats were sleek and black; they ran around their cages, they could even reproduce.
Tarnopolsky sees something similar happen in his ill patients. He says exercise is the most effective therapy available to them.
The article goes on to list some of the things that happen to a body in motion:
  • The body is better able to burn fat for energy instead of carbs, causing fat cells to shrink.
  • Exercise may protect telomeres, the tiny caps on the ends of chromosomes. This appears to slow the aging of cells.
  • Increased blood flow to the brain creates new blood vessels. Exercise also triggers the release of chemicals that dull pain and lighten mood.
  • Moving quickly makes the heart pump more blood to the body's tissues, including the muscles. That extra oxygen helps muscles better withstand fatigue.
  • Repeated weight-bearing contractions make muscles grow and put pressure on the bones, increasing their density.
With respect to diabetes, muscles in motion use more glucose thus lowering the glucose in the blood stream. In addition, exercise reduces insulin resistance allowing the body to use insulin more efficiently.
Follow these tips to begin a regular exercise program:
  • If you haven't been physically active in the past, take small steps as you begin to change your habits. This may mean starting with 5 minutes of activity per day.
  • Your goal is to exercise for a total of 30-60 minutes each day. You can exercise for shorter periods several times per day.
  • General guidelines are to do cardiovascular exercise for 30 minutes, 5 days per week and do strength training exercise 2 days per week.
  • Gradually increase the time you exercise each week.
  • Slowly increase the amount of effort you put into each workout after you get to the desired duration and frequency of your exercise routine.
Any activity or exercise you can add to your daily routine will help improve your health.
Let's hear it for muscles in motion.
Sept. 13, 2016

VW emissions cheat may lead to 50 premature deaths, $423 million in economic costs, study shows

Beginning in 2008, Volkswagen installed software to circumvent emissions testing by turning off the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions control system in real-world driving in nearly half a million cars. A new analysis using a tool developed and used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to assess the health and economic impacts related to air quality calculates that a single year of elevated emissions from the affected VW vehicles could lead to as many as 50 premature deaths, 3,000 lost workdays, and $423 million in economic costs.
The analysis was led by scientists at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health and Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. Results appear in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Policy.
"It is well established in scientific literature that nitrogen oxides contribute to respiratory and cardiovascular disease leading to disability and death," says first author Lifang Hou, MD, PhD, associate professor of Preventive Medicine at Northwestern.
The researchers used the EPA's Co-Benefits Risk Assessment Model (COBRA), a peer-reviewed tool, to estimate the costs and benefits of air quality. The model derives changes of ambient fine particulate matter (PM) concentrations related to NOx emissions then uses PM levels to estimate health and economic costs. The approach is similar to what the EPA uses for regulatory impact analysis.
The study outlines three scenarios (best, midpoint, and worse) for several specific health outcomes such as asthma exacerbations (154; 407; 660), as well as hospital admissions related to respiratory and cardiovascular disease (3; 9; 14) and days of work lost (687; 1,816; 2,947). For each category, the researchers report the related economic costs. Premature deaths accounted for the bulk of costs, ranging from $42 million when the researchers assumed a relatively lower risk and best-case scenario to $418 million for a higher risk assumption and worst-case scenario.
The effect of non-compliant VW emissions is almost certainly substantially worse than their estimates for several reasons, the study's authors say. First, the analysis only accounts for a single year of added emissions when most of the vehicles have been on the road for multiple years; secondly, the researchers looked at emissions from the approximately 482,000 cars using 2.0-liter diesel engines, not additional non-compliant cars with 3.0-liter diesel engines, nor the approximately 800,000 additional diesel and gas vehicles with underreported carbon dioxide emissions; lately, they put aside the established link between NOx and ozone, a known health risk and greenhouse gas.
On June 28, VW agreed to pay as much $14.7 in a civil accord with most of the funds dedicated to taking the affected cars off the road or retrofitting them. From these funds, $2.7 billion is set aside for environmental cleanup and $2.0 billion, for initiatives promoting the use of zero-emission vehicles in the U.S. In addition, the company is facing criminal charges and civil penalties related to violations of the Clean Air Act.
"Emissions of nitrogen oxides from these vehicles were as much as 40 times higher than the EPA standard, adding up to 15,000 metric tons of these chemicals into the air we breath every year," says Andrea Baccarelli, MD, PhD, Chair and Leon Hess Professor of Environmental Health Sciences at Columbia's Mailman School. "It's crucial that Americans and the government officials they serve know the extent of the damage done to public health and the economy."
Story Source:
The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Columbia University Medical Center. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Research explores thermoelectric screen printing


Boise State University,

What if you could easily print a thin layer of material -- for use anywhere -- that would allow you to create flexible energy harvesters or coolers? That may soon be a reality.
Thermoelectric conversion is a solid-state and environmentally friendly energy conversion technology with broad applications that include solid-state cooling, energy harvesting and waste heat recovery.
Flexible thermoelectric devices are especially attractive for waste heat recovery along contoured surfaces and for energy harvesting applications to power sensors, biomedical devices and wearable electronics -- an area experiencing exponential growth. However, obtaining low-cost, flexible and efficient thermoelectric materials is extremely difficult due to many materials and manufacturing challenges.
In work led by professor Yanliang Zhang at Boise State University, high-performance and low-cost flexible thermoelectric films and devices were fabricated by an innovative screen-printing process that allows for direct conversion of nanocrystals into flexible thermoelectric devices.
The precise control of the starting nanocrystals' shape and surface chemistry and the optimization of the nano-ink and screen-printing process are the key factors giving rise to unprecedented performances in the printed thermoelectric materials.
The paper on this work, "High-performance and flexible thermoelectric films by screen printing solution-processed nanoplate crystalsis," is published on the Scientific Reports website. The collaboration with high-tech startup company ThermoAura, focusing on nanocrystal synthesis, also contributed to the success of this work.
Based on initial cost analysis, the screen-printed films can realize thermoelectric devices at 2-3 cents per watt, an order of magnitude lower than current state-of-the-art commercial devices. Such a cost reduction would make thermoelectrics a very competitive energy conversion technology that could tremendously open up the largely underexplored markets on waste heat recovery.
This additive printing method not only will benefit thermoelectrics, but also result in a disruptive manufacturing approach for other electronic devices and energy conversion or storage technologies of ultralow cost and flexibility.
Zhang's vision on marrying additive manufacturing and advanced energy technology to enable major technology breakthroughs also has been recognized by a major federal funding agency. He recently received an infrastructure award from U.S. Department of Energy to invest an advanced additive printing equipment and establish state-of-the-art additive manufacturing capabilities at Boise State.
This new capability will enable students to perform cutting edge research on additive manufacturing and their applications on printing sensors, flexible electronics and energy conversion and storage systems.
Story Source:
The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Boise State University. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Study measures effects of congestion on access to jobs by car


Massachusetts Institute of Technology,

New research from the Accessibility Observatory at the University of Minnesota estimates the impact of traffic congestion on access to jobs for the 50 largest (by population) metropolitan areas in the United States.
The new rankings are part of the Access Across America study, which began in 2013. The rankings focus on accessibility, a measure that examines both land use and transportation systems. Accessibility measures how many destinations, such as jobs, can be reached in a given time.
"Rather than focusing on how congestion affects individual travelers," explained Andrew Owen, director of the Observatory, "our approach quantifies the overall impact that congestion has on the potential for interaction within urban areas."

Top 10 metro areas with the greatest loss in job accessibility due to congestion 1. Los Angeles 2. Boston 3. Chicago 4. New York 5. Phoenix 6. Houston 7. Riverside 8. Seattle 9. Pittsburgh 10. San Francisco
The study, which is based on data from 2015, also ranks access to jobs by car for the 50 largest U.S. metro areas.
"For example, the Minneapolis-St. Paul metro area ranked 12th in terms of job accessibility but 23rd in the reduction in job access due to congestion," Owen said. "This suggests that job accessibility is influenced less by congestion here than in other cities."

Top 10 metro areas with the greatest job accessibility by car 1. New York 2. Los Angeles 3. Chicago 4. Dallas 5. San Jose 6. San Francisco 7. Washington, DC 8. Houston 9. Boston 10. Philadelphia
To measure access to jobs by car, researchers calculated travel times using a detailed road network and speed data that reflect typical conditions for an 8 a.m. Wednesday morning departure. Additionally, the accessibility results for 8 a.m. are compared with accessibility results for 4 a.m. to estimate the impact of road and highway congestion on job accessibility.
Rankings are determined by a weighted average of accessibility, with a higher weight given to closer, easier-to-access jobs. Jobs reachable within 10 minutes are weighted most heavily, and jobs are given decreasing weights as travel time increases up to 60 minutes.
The report -- Access Across America: Auto 2015 -- presents detailed accessibility and congestion impact values for each metropolitan area as well as block-level maps that illustrate the spatial patterns of accessibility within each area. It also includes a census tract-level map that shows accessibility patterns at a national scale. It can be found online at: http://access.umn.edu/research/america/auto/2015/
The research was sponsored by the National Accessibility Evaluation Pooled-Fund Study, a multi-year effort led by the Minnesota Department of Transportation and supported by partners including the Federal Highway Administration and 11 state DOTs.
Accessibility Observatory reports, including the new analysis of job accessibility by auto (Access Across America: Auto 2015), are available at access.umn.edu.
Story Source:
The above post is reprinted from materials provided by University of Minnesota College of Science and Engineering. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Tips to ward off pneumonia

Lifestyle and home remedies

These tips can help you recover more quickly and decrease your risk of complications:
  • Get plenty of rest. Don't go back to school or work until after your temperature returns to normal and you stop coughing up mucus. Even when you start to feel better, be careful not to overdo it. Because pneumonia can recur, it's better not to jump back into your routine until you are fully recovered. Ask your doctor if you're not sure.
  • Stay hydrated. Drink plenty of fluids, especially water, to help loosen mucus in your lungs.
  • Take your medicine as prescribed. Take the entire course of any medications your doctor prescribed for you. If you stop taking medication too soon, your lungs may continue to harbor bacteria that can multiply and cause your pneumonia to recur.


To help prevent pneumonia:
  • Get vaccinated. Vaccines are available to prevent some types of pneumonia and the flu. Talk with your doctor about getting these shots. The vaccination guidelines have changed over time so make sure to review your vaccination status with your doctor even if you recall previously receiving a pneumonia vaccine.
  • Make sure children get vaccinated. Doctors recommend a different pneumonia vaccine for children younger than age 2 and for children ages 2 to 5 years who are at particular risk of pneumococcal disease. Children who attend a group child care center should also get the vaccine. Doctors also recommend flu shots for children older than 6 months.
  • Practice good hygiene. To protect yourself against respiratory infections that sometimes lead to pneumonia, wash your hands regularly or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
  • Don't smoke. Smoking damages your lungs' natural defenses against respiratory infections.
  • Keep your immune system strong. Get enough sleep, exercise regularly and eat a healthy diet.

quinta-feira, 15 de setembro de 2016

Emotional memory affects behavior of persons with Alzheimer's

Our feelings and emotions color our lives from birth to death. Each of us ebb and flow through cycles of joy, fear, anger and loss. We know the feeling of love and we can sense alienation. This deeply human emotional experience is unequivocally true for persons affected by Alzheimer's.
Our emotional life comes from the inner part of our brain called the amygdala. The amygdala is more instinctive than the thinking part of the brain called the cortex. The amygdala is kept in check by the cortex of the brain, in particular the frontal lobe.
This means that a person living with Alzheimer's will experience emotions, but at times may have less ability to regulate them. As a result, they're often labeled as having irrational or inappropriate behavior.
Some of you may have experienced the person you know living with dementia seeming upset for no apparent reason. People with dementia often forget the circumstances that caused a strong feeling. But they may retain the feelings associated with the incident for some time.
For example, if your spouse reacted irritable or angry toward you last week because of something you did or didn't do, that resentment or feeling might stay around for a while even though the reason for the feeling is forgotten.
It's been said that it's easier to erase a bad memory than the emotion behind that bad memory. For persons living with dementia, this is certainly the case.
This summer at the Alzheimer's Association International Conference in Boston, I had a wonderful opportunity to hear Dr. Steven Sabat present and discuss his work aimed at understanding dementia from the inside out.
Dr. Sabat is a member of Georgetown University's Psychology Department and the author of "The Experience of Alzheimer's Disease: Life Through a Tangled Veil Dementia (2001), and "Mind, Meaning and the Person" (2005).
He finds that people with Alzheimer's can form new emotional associations-memories-related to how they're treated or by an experience. Then, sometime later, they may exhibit the associated emotion, although they can't consciously recall the incident related to that emotion.
In an excellent book called "Excellence in Dementia Care: Principles and Practice", edited by Murna Downs and Barbara Bowers (2008), the following scenario offers an example:
"You are a staff member at a day center that serves people including those diagnosed with dementia. The spouse of one of the participants tells you about his wife, "Her Alzheimer's is getting worse; yesterday after I picked her up at the day center, she became irrationally hostile toward me, wouldn't speak to me or look at me during the evening."
What do you say? What do you think? Consider what you might think if you also knew the larger context of the scenario:
When the husband arrived to pick up his wife, she was standing in the hallway conversing with others, including staff members. The husband joined in the conversation but, as his wife was talking, he began to tuck her turtleneck top into her trousers. As he did this in front of others, thinking (incorrectly) that she'd forgotten to do so herself, she was clearly humiliated, her eyes bulging out of their sockets so to speak, but this went unnoticed by the husband. She reacted toward him with anger, but her anger was anything but 'irrational.' Indeed, one could quite easily refer to her reaction as 'righteous indignation' instead or 'irrational hostility.' "
According to the authors of the book, the woman was displaying righteous indignation; a reactive emotion of anger over perceived mistreatment.
This story reflects the importance of knowing the full context in which a person acts. The woman's emotional reaction to her husband was actually befitting to the situation. Yet someone with dementia could be commonly labeled as irrational or hostile-his or her undesirable behavior attributed merely to the brain damage due to Alzheimer's.
Emotional behaviors occur for a reason. The wife in the story illustrates the preservation of implicit memory, also called procedural memory. She exhibited behavior appropriate to an emotion associated with an experience she had, even though she can't consciously remember the experience.
In other words, she was unable to recall or articulate the details of the situation that caused her to be angry. To do so would require explicit memory, also called declarative memory. This is a function of the brain highly impacted by Alzheimer's.
I'll continue to advocate for treating people as people and seeing the whole person, not just a diagnosis or label. Those living with dementia know, feel, and experience life much more than we appreciate. They know when they're being treated with respect and when they're not.
Once we believe this, it completely changes us-the way we communicate, the way we interact, and the way we see ourselves in this interconnected web of life.

sexta-feira, 9 de setembro de 2016

Overview - Zika virus disease


By Mayo Clinic Staff Print

The mosquito that carries Zika virus is found worldwide.
Stay up-to-date on virus disease cases on the CDC's Zika virus disease website.

Zika (Zee-ka) virus disease is a mosquito-borne viral infection that primarily occurs in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Most people infected with Zika virus have no signs and symptoms, while others report mild fever, rash and muscle pain. Other signs and symptoms may include headache, red eyes (conjunctivitis) and a general feeling of discomfort.
Zika virus infections during pregnancy have been linked to miscarriage and can cause microcephaly, a potentially fatal congenital brain condition. Zika virus also may cause other neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barre syndrome.
Researchers are working on a Zika virus vaccine. For now the best prevention is to prevent mosquito bites and reduce mosquito habitats.
Sept. 02, 2016
  1. AskMayoExpert. Zika. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2016.
  2. Schuler-Faccini L, et al. Possible association between Zika virus infection and microcephaly – Brazil, 2015. The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2016;65:59.
  3. Ayres CFJ. Identification of Zika virus vectors and implications for control. The Lancet. In press. Accessed Feb. 12, 2016.
  4. Zika virus. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/zika/index.html. Accessed Feb. 12, 2016.
  5. Recommendations for donor screening, deferral, and product management to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmission of Zika virus. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.fda.gov/downloads/BiologicsBloodVaccines/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/Blood/UCM486360.pdf?elq_cid=1276914&x_id=&elqTrackId=3c05e939c7654e97b748609b4507885e&elq=e87e12610c974fa0a1191639391fedae&elqaid=49412&elqat=1&elqCampaignId=21484. Accessed Feb. 18, 2016.
  6. Rasmussen SA, et al. Zika virus and birth defects – Reviewing the evidence for causality. New England Journal of Medicine. http://www.nejm.org. Accessed April 15, 2016.